Through a study with special software, the structure is designed without thermal bridges and with good airtightness (during the construction phase, the appropriate tests will be made to verify in the field what has been estimated with the software).
In addition to the materials, all the insulation of the construction nodes, from the floors to the roof, as well as the geometries to be given to the envelope, must be studied and implemented in the project. In many cases, ad hoc solutions must be almost invented for the particular type of structure.
Sheaths and taping must be properly inserted for airtightness. Never skimp on airtight materials. Obviously, it is always good to have high wall thicknesses, and this can be done through an additional external insulation system, which must be compatible with the chosen materials. For example, it is more appropriate to use wood fiber, possibly with different layers of different densities, in order to have natural and non-toxic materials.
In some cases, it may be more profitable to design a ventilated facade because it better responds to certain needs of the building. In addition, it must be studied from the outset whether the worst conditions occur in winter or summer. You will understand very well that you cannot design the same house.
Designing through specific software is very important.
For example, by means of dynamic simulations of the inclination of the sun’s rays throughout the year, it is possible to study the most suitable type of shading or to calculate the right length of the projection of an overhang to obtain shade in summer and solar gain in winter.
What are the strictly indispensable systems in a low energy consumption project?
Is a boiler always necessary, especially if you live north? Absolutely not. That is why instead of focusing on whether to buy a condensing boiler with underfloor heating, you would do well to consult a specialist and have an integrated project made with particular attention to energy dynamics, Power to Choose Energy.
There are already very low consumption houses that do not have a heating system, but which, thanks to a really well-insulated casing, only work with controlled mechanical ventilation (VMC) and a small heat pump for winter and summer peaks, often used for very few days throughout the year (simply because there is no need!).
In other cases, especially if the budget does not allow it, it still makes sense to consider the boiler and the heating system. But the difference is still the sizing. For example, for a building of about ten units, correctly designed, a 24/25 KW boiler could be sufficient.
Exact! What you would mount in an 80 sq m apartment can meet the needs of an entire building. And similar arguments can be made for a single house. You can also check reviews on energy at TXU Energy Reviews.
The beauty is that the internal comfort conditions are much better than the apartment building with the classic method (if you allow me, with the classic method I also mean some more current buildings, classified with energy classes A and B, without fear of denial).